Research: There is clear and consistent evidence that writing instruction has some of the largest impacts on reading comprehension and in education more broadly.

Writing to Read: Parallel and Independent Contributions of Writing Research to the Science of Reading by Adrea J. Truckenmiller and Brennan W. Chandler

When considering instructional activities to support students’ reading development, writing instruction might not be the first thing that comes to educators’ minds. In a practical sense, there are few structural facilitators of writing instruction compared to the availability of high quality reading and math curricular materials. Educators typically have greater confidence in their own abilities to comprehend text and teach reading than in their own abilities to write clearly and effectively and to teach writing (Troia & Graham, 2016). Teaching and assigning writing in response to reading is punishing to teachers because of the time-consuming nature of reviewing student writing and deciding in which areas to provide feedback (Cutler & Graham, 2008). Almost 75% of students in U.S. classrooms are not proficient in their writing (National Assessment of Education Progress, 2017), which likely makes the act of writing very frustrating for students and potentially makes many students resistant to writing tasks.

While these barriers are signifi cant and valid, neglecting writing instruction is leaving money on the table. There is clear and consistent evidence that writing instruction has some of the largest impacts on reading comprehension and in education more broadly (Graham & Harris, 2018). Luckily, the most effective writing instruction is freely available or very low-cost. In this article, we curate relevant theories on the co-development of reading and writing, highlight a recent empirical model of reading and writing from developmental psychology that has direct implications for education (Kim & Graham, 2022), and we give practical examples of research-based writing instruction that have impact on both writing and reading achievement.
Read more here.


Reading Kingdom is an online K-3 reading program that uses a new “phonics-plus” model to teach students to read and write at a 3rd grade level with comprehension. Sign up for a complimentary Reading Kingdom trial (or any of our other products) here.

We also have a program for students on the autism spectrum and others who face unique learning challenges called ASD ReadingSign up for a complimentary trial of ASD Reading here.